ZyVersa Therapeutics Announces Article Published in Metabolism Pointing to Glomerular Cholesterol Accumulation as Key Factor Exacerbating Renal Injury and Dysfunction in Diabetic Kidney Disease

today’s #cyclodextrin:
ZyVersa Therapeutics Inc. published a press release on the mechanism of action of their lead asset, VAR-200, which is hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin targeting patients with glomerular diseases (#diabetic #kidneydisease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and Alport Syndrome). VAR-200 was able to reduce renal cholesterol and lipid accumulation that damages the kidneys’ filtration system, to mediate transport of excess cholesterol out of kidney cells passively, and by upregulating cholesterol transporter ABCA1.
Deposition of glomerular cholesterol contributes to structural damage and dysfunction of the kidney’s filtration system in models of type 2 diabetes is consistent with data from VAR 200’s preclinical program. By mediating cholesterol transport out of the glomeruli through passive transport and upregulation of ABCA1 transporters, VAR 200 protected against glomerular injury and fibrosis, and significantly reduced protein spillage into the urine in all three kidney diseases

See more about this topic here:
ABCA1 deficiency-mediated glomerular cholesterol accumulation exacerbates glomerular endothelial injury and dysfunction in diabetic kidney disease

ZyVersa Therapeutics Announces Article Published in Metabolism Pointing to Glomerular Cholesterol Accumulation as Key Factor Exacerbating Renal Injury and Dysfunction in Diabetic Kidney Disease

IgG glycans in health and disease: Prediction, intervention, prognosis, and therapy

Fantastic overview of the current state of knowledge regarding IgG glycosylation in health and disease and its potential applications in pro-active prevention and monitoring of various health interventions.
Genos Ltd – GlycanAgeSofia ShkunnikovaAnika MijakovacLucija SironicMaja HanićGordan LaucMarina Martinić Kavur

See the full article here: IgG glycans in health and disease: Prediction, intervention, prognosis, and therapy

Mechanisms of cancer resistance in long-lived mammals

Have you known that certain animals are unable to develop cancer? Do you also know why?

Cancer researchers have traditionally used the mouse and the rat as staple model organisms. These animals are very short-lived, reproduce rapidly, and are highly prone to cancer. They have been very useful for modeling some human cancer types and testing experimental treatments; however, these cancer-prone species offer little for understanding the mechanisms of cancer resistance. Recent technological advances have expanded bestiary research to non-standard model organisms that possess unique traits of very high value to humans, such as cancer resistance and longevity. In recent years, several discoveries have been made in non-standard mammalian species, providing new insights into the natural mechanisms of cancer resistance. These include mechanisms of cancer resistance in the naked mole rat, blind mole rat, and elephant. In each of these species, evolution took a different path, leading to novel mechanisms. Many other long-lived mammalian species display cancer resistance, including whales, grey squirrels, microbats, cows, and horses. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer resistance in all these species is important and timely, as, ultimately, these mechanisms could be harnessed for the development of human cancer therapies.

See the full article here on nature.com

Smaller size packs a stronger punch – Recent advances in small antibody fragments targeting tumour-associated carbohydrate antigens

Very educative review on recent advances in small antibody fragments targeting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens
Glycans represent the most versatile post-translational modification in nature and surround all human cells. Unique glycan structures are monitored by the immune system and differentiate self from non-self and healthy from malignant cells. Aberrant glycosylations, termed tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs), are a hallmark of cancer and are correlated with all aspects of cancer biology. Therefore, TACAs represent attractive targets for monoclonal antibodies for cancer diagnosis and therapy. However, due to the thick and dense glycocalyx as well as the tumor micro-environment, conventional antibodies often suffer from restricted access and limited effectiveness in vivo. To overcome this issue, many small antibody fragments have come forth, showing similar affinity with better efficiency than their full-length counterparts. In this paper, small antibody fragments against specific glycans on tumour cells and highlighting their advantages over conventional antibodies are presented.
Sana Khan KhiljiCharlotte Op ‘t HoogDavid WarschkauFelix GoerdelerAnika FreitagPeter SeebergerOren Moscovitz

See the article here

Polarizer and image display device

today’s cyclodextrin:
Conventional LCDs have a drawback of sensitivity to high temperatures. However, mobile phones and in-vehicle applications (such as car navigation systems) and various touch panel instruments with such display(s) are often exposed to harsh conditions. Sumitomo Electric’s polarizing plate has a polarizing element in which a dichroic dye is adsorbed and oriented on a polyvinyl alcohol-based resin layer and a transparent protective film containing a compound having nitroxy radical/ group and cyclodextrin. The model LCD panel well tolerated as high temperatures as 105 Celsius for an extended period of time (240 hours).

See the original patent on Espacenet

University of Sydney and CarboHyde join forces in groundbreaking collaboration to combat natural toxins

University of Sydney, a leading innovator in researching natural toxins and poisons, and CarboHyde, a renowned expert in developing therapeutic carbohydrates are proud to announce their strategic partnership in the fight against natural toxins. This groundbreaking collaboration aims to advance research, develop effective solutions, and raise awareness about the detrimental impact of natural toxins on human health.

The world faces a growing threat from natural toxins, which can be found in various forms, including harmful algal blooms, venomous organisms, and poisonous plants. These toxins pose significant challenges to public health, wildlife, and ecosystems, demanding immediate attention and collaborative efforts to mitigate their harmful effects.

By combining their unique expertise, University of Sydney, led by Greg Neely and CarboHyde will work hand in hand to develop innovative technologies and approaches for neutralizing natural toxins and developing antidotes against poisoning or for prevention. “Our joint efforts will not only enhance the scientific understanding of these toxins but also pave the way for effective preventive measures and responsive strategies” – said Joseph Toth, CEO of CarboHyde. “Natural toxins present a complex and multifaceted challenge, requiring interdisciplinary solutions. This collaboration allows us to leverage our respective strengths and resources to address this pressing issue collaboratively. Together, we aim to develop comprehensive strategies that safeguard public health.” he added. 

The partnership between the University of Sydney and CarboHyde signifies a milestone in the fight against natural toxins. By combining their research capabilities, technical expertise, and industry knowledge, these two partners are committed to making significant contributions to toxin detection, risk assessment, and effective mitigation strategies.

Reduction of thyroid radioactive iodine exposure by oral administration of cyclic oligosaccharides

Radioactive iodine may cause thyroid cancer and hypofunction and accordingly must be properly managed. If the absorption of radioactive iodine is suppressed, it can be expected to lead to a reduction in thyroid exposure. This study the inhibition of radioactive iodine absorption by the oral administration of α-cyclodextrin is shown in a murine model. The uptake of radioactive iodine into the thyroid gland in mice administered with radioactive iodine and an α-cyclodextrin solution was approximately 40% lower after 24 h. The finding that oral uptake of α-cyclodextrin has an inhibitory effect on the transfer of radioactive iodine to the thyroid gland has potential for application in many fields such as food, pharmaceuticals, nuclear emergency preparedness, and medicine.
Kumamoto University, JAPAN

See the full article on nature.com

Drug complexes: Perspective from Academic Research and Pharmaceutical Market

today’s cyclodextrin:
Drug complexes: Perspective from Academic Research and Pharmaceutical Market
Despite numerous research efforts, drug delivery through the oral route remains a major challenge to formulation scientists. The oral delivery of drugs poses a significant challenge because more than 40% of new chemical entities are practically insoluble in water. Low aqueous solubility is the main problem encountered during the formulation development of new actives and for generic development. A complexation approach has been widely investigated to address this issue, which subsequently improves the bioavailability of these drugs. This review discusses the various types of complexes such as metal complex (drug-metal ion), organic molecules (drug-caffeine or drug-hydrophilic polymer), inclusion complex (drug-cyclodextrin), and pharmacosomes (drug-phospholipids) that improves the aqueous solubility, dissolution, and permeability of the drug along with the numerous case studies reported in the literature. Besides improving solubility, drug-complexation provides versatile functions like improving stability, reducing the toxicity of drugs, increasing or decreasing the dissolution rate, and enhancing bioavailability and biodistribution. Apart, various methods to predict the stoichiometric ratio of reactants and the stability of the developed complex are discussed.
Siva Ram MunnangiAhmed YoussefNagarjuna NaralaPreethi LakkalaSagar NaralaSateesh Kumar Vemula, Ph.D. & Michael Repka  

See the full article here

ɑ-cyclodextrin (A), β-cyclodextrin (B), γ-cyclodextrin (C), Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (D), Cucurbit(7)uril (E), Cucurbit(8)uril (F), sulfonatocalix(4)arene (G) & sulfonatocalix(8)arene (H).

Encapsulation of Fragrances in Micro- and Nanocapsules, Polymeric Micelles and Polymersomes

today’s cyclodextrin:
Fragrances are ubiquitously and extensively used in everyday life and several industrial applications, including perfumes, textiles, laundry formulations, hygiene household products, and food products. However, the intrinsic volatility of these small molecules leaves them particularly susceptible to fast depletion from a product or from the surface they have been applied to. Encapsulation is a very effective method to limit the loss of fragrance during their use and to sustain their release, as summarized by Sam Russell and Nico Bruns.
This review gives an overview of the different materials and techniques used for the encapsulation of fragrances, scents, and aromas, as well as the methods used to characterize the resulting encapsulation systems, with a particular focus on cyclodextrins, polymer microcapsules, inorganic microcapsules, block copolymer micelles, and polymersomes for fragrance encapsulation, sustained release, and controlled release.

See the article here: Encapsulation of Fragrances in Micro- and Nanocapsules, Polymeric Micelles and Polymersomes