Drug complexes: Perspective from Academic Research and Pharmaceutical Market
Despite numerous research efforts, drug delivery through the oral route remains a major challenge to formulation scientists. The oral delivery of drugs poses a significant challenge because more than 40% of new chemical entities are practically insoluble in water. Low aqueous solubility is the main problem encountered during the formulation development of new actives and for generic development. A complexation approach has been widely investigated to address this issue, which subsequently improves the bioavailability of these drugs. This review discusses the various types of complexes such as metal complex (drug-metal ion), organic molecules (drug-caffeine or drug-hydrophilic polymer), inclusion complex (drug-cyclodextrin), and pharmacosomes (drug-phospholipids) that improves the aqueous solubility, dissolution, and permeability of the drug along with the numerous case studies reported in the literature. Besides improving solubility, drug-complexation provides versatile functions like improving stability, reducing the toxicity of drugs, increasing or decreasing the dissolution rate, and enhancing bioavailability and biodistribution. Apart, various methods to predict the stoichiometric ratio of reactants and the stability of the developed complex are discussed.
Siva Ram Munnangi, Ahmed Youssef, Nagarjuna Narala, Preethi Lakkala, Sagar Narala, Sateesh Kumar Vemula, Ph.D. & Michael Repka