Lipid-based RNA formulations suitable for therapy

today’s cyclodextrin:
In this invention, BioNTech SE provides a method of producing a composition comprising RNA lipoplex particles. The main focus of the description is antitumoral therapy.
In the formulation itself, the aqueous colloidal suspension of liposomes is combined with an aqueous solution comprising RNA, thereby producing the composition comprising RNA lipoplex particles. The formulation requires frozen storage conditions; hence the use of cyroprotectant is necessary. The invention proposes mono- di- and oligosaccharides to protect such compositions, including various cyclodextrins and cyclodextrin polymers.
The use of cyclodextrins as cryoprotectants and stabilizers in biopharmaceutical formulations is an emerging technology.

Dr. Hossam HefeshaHeinrich HaasFerdia BatesChristian Hotz
Katalin Karikó

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The hidden potential of glycomarkers: Glycosylation studies in the service of cancer diagnosis and treatment

Changes in the glycosylation process appear early in carcinogenesis and evolve with the growth and spread of cancer. The correlation of the characteristic glycosylation signature with the tumor stage and the appropriate therapy choice is important in translational medicine. Oncologists also pay attention to extracellular vesicles as reservoirs of new cancer glycomarkers that can be potent for cancer diagnosis/prognosis. In this review, Karolina Grzesik, Marcelina Janik, Dorota Hoja-Łukowicz from Jagiellonian University collect glycomarkers used in oncology and show their new glycoforms of improved clinical relevance, summarize current knowledge on the biological functions of glycoepitopes in cancer-derived extracellular vesicles and their potential use in clinical practice. Is glycomics a future of cancer diagnosis? It may be but in combination with other omics analyses than alone.

See the full review here: The hidden potential of glycomarkers: Glycosylation studies in the service of cancer diagnosis and treatment

Treatment of cancer

This patent on CRLX-101, an experimental approach using camptothecin (CPT) to cancer chemotherapy, reminded us of a wonderful idea from Mark Davis (Caltech). In CRLX101, CPT is linked covalently through a glycine link to the linear copolymer CDP, which in turn consists of alternating subunits of beta-cyclodextrin and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The CRLX101 nanoparticle is water-soluble. After intravenous injection, active CPT is slowly released as the linkage is hydrolyzed. The size of the nanoparticle (20-50 nm in diameter) facilitates its extravasation in the more leaky vessels of tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. As a result, the anticancer drug is enhanced and retained in the tumor tissue.
The new patent from Ellipses Pharma proposes novel applications dominantly in rectal cancer.
Amato GiacciaHanna SanoffJoel Tepper

Synergistic Antitumor Potency of a Self-Assembling Cyclodextrin Nanoplex for the Co-Delivery of 5-Fluorouracil and Interleukin-2 in the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer

We are proud to share Milo Malanga‘s most recent collaboration paper with Hacettepe University on creating nanoplexes via cationic cyclodextrin polymer, 5-Fluorouracil, and Interleukin-2 based on the opposite charge interaction of macromolecules without undergoing any structural changes or losing the biological activity of Interleukin-2. In the colorectal tumor-bearing animal model, survival rate, antitumor activity, metastasis, and immune response parameters were assessed using a cyclodextrin derivative, which was found to be safe based on the ALT/AST levels in healthy mice.

Histomorphometric analysis showed that the groups treated with the nanoplex formulation had significantly fewer initial tumors and lung foci when compared with the control. The dual drug-loaded nanoplex could be a promising drug delivery technique in the immunochemotherapy of colorectal cancer.

Safiye AkkınGamze VaranAnıl IşıkPetek KorkusuzErem Bilensoy et al.

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Mannose-methyl-β-cyclodextrin suppresses tumor growth by targeting both colon cancer cells and tumor-associated macrophages

Last week we shared applications of cyclodextrin in various types of cancer, and a discussion was triggered byTamas Sohajda about “why is it always HPBCD that is studied.” In this paper from Kumamoto University, JAPAN, by Keiichi Motoyama, Mannose-methyl-β-cyclodextrin is applied to suppress tumor growth by targeting colon cancer cells and tumor-associated macrophages.

See the full article here.

Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inhibits the development of triple-negative breast cancer by enhancing antitumor immunity

After sharing news on treating lymphedema, we came across another potential therapeutic use of cyclodextrin. In this preprint from Hefei University of Technology and Emory University authors demonstrate that 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) inhibited the growth and metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) both in vitro and in vivo, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear.
Cholesterol supplementation can attenuate HP-b-CD-inhibited TNBC growth and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. In vivo, HP-β-CD promoted the infiltration of T cells into the tumor microenvironment (TME) and improved the exhaustion of CD8+ T cells via reducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and immune checkpoint molecules. Additionally, HP-β-CD inhibited the recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages to the TME by reducing the CCL2-p38MAPK-NF-kB axis. HP-β-CD also inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of TNBC cells mediated by transforming the growth factor-b (TGF-b) signaling pathway.
In summary, the data in the current study suggest that HP-β-CD effectively inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of TNBC and melanoma, highlighting HP-β-CD may be a potential general antitumor clinical drug.

See the full article here

The authors found that HP-b-CD inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of TNBC by reducing cholesterol levels. HP-b-CD promotes T cell recruitment to the TME and improves CD8+ T cell exhaustion. Additionally, HP-b-CD inhibits TAMs accumulation.